'''Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías''' (; 28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who served as the List of Presidents of Venezuela|64th President of Venezuela
from 1999 to 2013. He was also leader of the Fifth Republic Movement
from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela
(PSUV), which he led until 2012.
Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas
, Chávez became a career military officer, and after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system based on the Punto Fijo Pact
he founded the clandestine Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200
(MBR-200) in the early 1980s. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful Venezuelan coup attempts of 1992|coup d'état
against the Democratic Action
government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez
in 1992, for which he was imprisoned.